In this article, we are going to be looking at the origin of guava.
Short answer: guava (Psidium guajava) was said to be originated from part of Mexico, Central Amerca, Northern South America, and throughout the Caribbean region. According to the archaeological record in Peru about the evidence of guava cultivation, it was shown that guava cultivated have started as early as 2500 BC.
Read on more detailed information about the origin of guava.
Guava (scientific name: Psidium guajava) is a small tree or shrub that belongs to the family Myrtaceae.
It is an evergreen plant that flowers at least one to two times a year. The fruits are round, which range in size from 1-3 cm in diameter.
The word “guava” is an English word that is gotten from the Spanish word “Guajava” and the Portuguese word “Goiaba”.
Guava is also known locally by other names. For instance common guava, tropical guava, yellow guava in English, goyavier, and goyave in French. And in Portugal, it can be called goiaba, guaiaba, guaiava, goiabeira, goiabeiro, araça-goiaba, araça-guaçu. While in Spain, guava is known as guayaba, Guaynabo, guayaba, or Manzana. And koejawel in Afrikaans. The Dutch call it guave while the German called it Echte Guave. And in Hausa, it is called gweba. While the Indonesian called guava jambu Batu or jambu biji. And it is known as guaiava in Italy. And the Javanese called it jambu kluthuk.
Due to a lack of sufficient knowledge about the benefits someone can derive from guava, it is sometimes ignored. However, guava is one of Mother Nature’s most potent healing agents. It is an inexpensive fruit and its benefits are numerous and valuable.
Nutritionally, guava contains more soluble fibers than apples and it is an excellent source of pectin and dietary water, which are known to help prevent gastrointestinal cancers as well as lower cholesterol levels.
Guava is also low in trans and saturated fatty acids, which also makes guava good for heart health.
Guava also contains many vitamins and minerals, which include potassium, beta carotene, calcium, folate, iron, lycopene, vitamins A-C, which are present in guava.
If you want good and young-looking skin, then you need to give guava leaves and fruits a try. Guava is rich in vitamin B and lycopene that help retard the oxidation of cells. The antioxidants that are present in guavas such as carotenoids (vitamin A), flavonoids, terpenoids, and vitamin Bs, and these antioxidants provide skin-smoothing and moisturizing properties, and protection against environmental toxins.
The vitamin C present in guava is five times the vitamin C in an orange. Vitamin C is a powerful vitamin that helps stimulates the assembly of collagen and helps with the building and maintaining of skin, blood vessels, joints, and cartilage.
Moreover, In addition to building the body, Vitamin C also helps improve heart functions. It also has properties of antihistamine and assists with balancing pollutants; this protects the skin from various skin conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, and hives.
Read also: How To Tell If A Guava Is Bad
Origin of Psidium Guajava
The origin of guava is uncertain. However, some sources suggested that guava is native to the tropical Americas such as Mexico, Brazil, and the Caribbean Islands.
Archaeological evidence in Peru suggested that guava had been in existence for more than 800 years (Clement et al., 2005).
The Spanish and Portuguese merchants were the major people that spread guava around the world.
Guava was shown to arrive in Asia, specifically Southeast Asia around the 17th century in Thailand.
However, the above report needs thorough further research in order to be concluded.
Guava was said to have reached subtropical and tropical Asia as a crop. It was then moved to the United States (North Carolina and Hawaii), south and southeast Asia, and tropical Africa.
Guava was first brought to Florida around the 19th century. It was since then grown in Florida and other areas such as Sarasota, Chipley, Waldo, and Fort Pierce.
The cultivation of guava in Florida is shown to be limited by the infestation of a fruit fly.
Current Facts and Cultivation
Guava and its different varieties are currently cultivated in different tropical and subtropical countries. Many varieties and species of guava are grown commercially. For instance, apple guava and its developed varieties are the most commonly traded guavas internationally.
Guavas are also presently grown in southwestern Europe, especially in countries and regions such as Costa del Sol on Málaga (Spain) and Greece where the guavas have been commercially grown since the middle of the 20th century and many good cultivars were also grown.
Temperature And PH Requirements
Guavas thrive well under optimal temperatures. They neither like extreme hot climate nor extreme cold climate. However, guavas prefer a warm climate over a cold climate.
Mature guava trees are fairly cold-hardy and were found to adopt temperatures slightly colder than 25 °F (−4 °C) for short periods of time. However, younger guava plants were found to be affected by this temperature, where they usually freeze to the ground.
Read also: Guava Worms And Management
Lifespan and Propagation
Guava can be propagated from seeds, cuttings, grafting, and air layering. However, growing guava from seeds is not recommended because the pant may not inherit the parents in vigor.
Guava can be grown in pots indoors as a hedge. It can also be cultivated on an orchard for commercial farming.
When guava is propagated, it can take three to four years before it starts fruiting. Most guavas produce fruits at least one to two times a year. Guavas were shown to span from anywhere around 30-40 years from the time they start producing fruits.
Frequently asked Questions
Is Guava native to India?
Guava presently is one of the most important fruit in India. It was ranked fourth after orange, banana, and mango. However, guava is not native to India.
Who Discovered Guava?
As earlier explained, guava origin is unknown. However, it was believed to be spread from southern Mexico through Central America. Guava has been dispersed by birds, men, and other animals to tropical and subtropical countries such as the West Indies.
Who Brought Guava India?
Guava was first brought to Asian countries by the Portuguese. It was then spread to Indian regions by the Portuguese.
Read also: Is Pineapple Guava Fast-growing? Find Out It
We hope this guide gives you excellent help in understanding the origin and distribution of the guava plants. Let us know your questions and views if you have any.
Read also: How To Fertilize Your Guava
Morton JF (1987). “Guava”. Fruits of Warm Climates. Purdue University. pp. 356–363. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
“Psidium guajava (guava)”. CABI: Invasive Species Compendium. 2017. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
Sauls JW (December 1998). “Home fruit production – Guava“. Texas A&M Horticulture Program. Retrieved 2012-04-17.